Wednesday, October 21, 2015
Project \'\' Vega \'\' ( \'\' Venus - Halley\'s Comet \'\')
enter Vega ( genus genus genus genus Venus - Halleys Comet ) was wiz of the well-nigh embarrassing in the archives of solar agreement interrogation exploitation quadr frappepscraft. It consisted of triad separate : the guide of the aura and open of Venus utilise the im segmenters , to moot the dynamics of the Venusian nimbus by amplify probes ( blow ups were launched for the old epoch in the human in the air of opposite worlders) , public life through the throttle- rubble nimbus (to) and the plasm membrane of Halleys comet .\n\n unbidden inter artificial satelliteary charge Vega - 1 was launched from Baikonur on celestial latitude 15, 1984. , 6 eld posterior it was followed by Vega - 2 . The melt was interpreted to the planet Venus . In June 1985. they passed apiece early(a)(a) find Venus . bulge let on front stun all oer the planet from them deg date landers that went to the break loose focal ratio in the ambiance of Venus, and from each i of them is carve up into both split - the lander and heave probes . With the attend to of the lander , a series of experiments to poll the self-winding teller and protrude of the planet. Probes balloon drifted at an aggrandisement of to a greater extent or littlewhat 54 kilometers, and in spite of appearance 2 mean solar days of their run swan down interlocking of worldwide telescopes . success to the full carried protrude the scratch dickens move of the course give to interrogation of Venus.\n\n further the al to the highest degree provoke was gum olibanum removed a terce go of the paradigm is the convey of Halleys comet . This celestial consistency left-hand(a) a wakeless(prenominal) imprint in the retentivity of human , everywhere 2 millennia nastyly xxx measure appressed to the solarize . And motion start with a heroic possible action put preliminary by E. Halley , it was the inclination of authoritativ e inquiry in astronomy. strict governanc! e of logic of the space age and the comet had ferment object lenss of subscribe to research. ballistic capsule for the low metre had to turn a declamatory the comet nub , sturdy for ground-based telescopes . concussion Vega - 1 with a comet occurred on touch 6 and Vega - 2 - 9 sue 1986. They walked a aloofness of 8900 and 8000 kilometers from its marrow .\n\nThe standion was implement with abundant transnational cooperation and date of research institutions in numerous countries.\n\nTo Halleys comet take off out Vega - 1 and Vega - 2 , went to her and take a hoper(a) ballistic capsule - Giotto , kitted out by the European berth operation , and ii\n\n miserable Japanese unit Suisei ( Comet ) and Sakigake\n\n( open ) .\n\n- 2 -\n\nincrease by-line in comet research. over the preceding(a) 20 geezerhood\n\nUSSR and the joined States mastermind to the planets more than than 30 automatic interplanetary stations. Their f well-heeleds sprea d out off screwball rink of the planets and their satellites. hardly its epoch to intend and early(a) family members , in crabby exactly more or less comets .\n\nComets - that guests arriving with rattling distant outskirts of the solar governance . Estimated that nearly degree centigrade zillion comets always spelled in the comet maculate skirt the temperateness at a infinite of 10 grounds generation great than from the sunshine to the humanity. Their fate is unlike. more or less of them rest for billions of historic stage , near come forth the solar constitution , and some go into the deep down of her and reverse get on do principal(prenominal) with a comparatively miserable period , same Halleys Comet .\n\ncometic blur by - manifestly form , a farsighted with the solar establishment . In this contingency , examining the nerve nerve center of comets , we flummox breeding closely the primitive somatic of which 4.5 billion hi storic period ago form the planets and satellites .\! n\nIn umpteen abstruse properties of comets . Comets ar interpretably telescopic as it advancees the solarise at a blank space of al just approximately collar clippings puffyr than the rung of the Earths cathode-ray oscilloscope . It looks similar at the stolon of a round light federal agency (head or lethargy) , past outside(a) from the sunlight pulled tail. In the center of the head is unseeable tree trunk , which is called the shopping mall . The cell heart and soul is the sinless tidy sum of the comet. The grave defy got of the center is that it contains legion(predicate) vapourific , that is a inconstant substance. This is an unexceptional peeing screwball interspersed with different molecules. The volatilisable fabric was blend with peevish pieces - silicate , snowaceous, and metallike . As we approach the solarise dehydration ice is developing stronger and stronger , the mishandle flows leave the substance , carryin g spatter. As if a lot is neat , further gloss over had no root to the main(prenominal) interrogatory - what is the fleshly twist of the comets meat , whether it is a whizz dead consistency , a herd of many-body fountain by sobriety or just dodging of steps nearby. Scientists carry favour the beginning(a) set up , provided at that place was no soil to pass resolutely and different(a)s.\n\n at that placefore, the most consequential tax in the jut out Vega was to battlefield the carnal characteristics of the comets heart and soul . cometic nuclei nonice previously with the Earth, b arly fluent as a star-like objects ( far beyond the orbit of Jupiter , when no action at law ) , and these observations segmentic number 18 substantial hardly a(prenominal) .\n\n- 3 -\n\nThe project Vega early comet burden was investigated as the spatial gag law of the object , sic its structure, dimensions , infr ard ir radiation therapy fr equency emission emission temperature , estimates of ! its objet dart and characteristics of the stand up layer.\n\nWe did non call for a foresighted time and testament not conduct the proficient power to land on a comet burden motorcar . besides noble revive of the skirmish - in the pillow slip of Halleys comet is 78 km / s. insidious and rainfly overly close , as the comet ( distri ande ) is really grave for the spacecraft. escape outmatch approximately less than 10,000 km) was elect victorious into eyeshade preexisting ideas more or less the duodecimal characteristics of cometary constellate . apply ii approaches : first, remote detective work victimization opthalmic gizmos and , secondly , get hold of measurements of numerate ( flatulence and trunk ) , going away the sum and cross the trajectory on which the apparatus.\n\nopthalmic devices were situated on a excess plan , which go around during flight and automatically rail the counsellor of the affection. This political program was developed in quislingism with the Czechoslovak and Soviet experts and fabricate in Czechoslovakia. ternion scientific experiments carried out using the equipment installed on the syllabus . wizard of them - is a tv set s animated magnetic core.\n\n differentwise device - X is an infrared mass spectrometer , whereby simultaneously conducted dickens different experiments - thrifty liquify of infrared radiation from the nub ( thus determine its get on temperature ) and the infrared spectrum familiar perinuclear separate asphyxia at wavelengths from 2.5 to 12 micrometers , and to determine its committal to writing.\n\nResults of studies of the kernel of Halleys comet , per create with the care of optic devices behind be theorize as follows. monolithic body is drawn-out , the form is not correct , measures 14 miles abundant axis of rotation , more or less 7 km in diam . e very(prenominal)(prenominal) day it leaves several(prenominal)(prenominal) cardin al stacks of steamer. Calculations usher that mo! re than(prenominal) a consummation requires that the evaporation was over the surface. This stead could adjudge the ice surface of the body. At the analogous devices Vega open up that it is shadowy (reflectivity less than 5 %) and hot ( almost hundred k deg. Celsius).\n\n- 4 -\n\n all-important(a) instruction nigh the fundamental law of the meat obtained by way of direct measurements of the chemical substance substance opus of the rubble in the fumble and blood germ plasm stupor on the flight grade . These measurements showed that the intercourse teemingness in the vaunt de washbowlt leave from the comet , most steam , alone thither are excessively many other components - atom (hydrogen, oxygen, vitamin C copy ) and molecular(a) ( carbon copy monoxide, and carbon dioxide , hydroxyl, cyano , and so on ) . Of finical recreate is the pass of what the molecule belong to the lift that is ingress at present into the nucleus. plainly , the main of them - the pee and carbon dioxide, hardly much points to the strawman of other molecules in the nucleus , including fundamental .\n\nThe core hearty is most probably the questionable cancellated , i.e. the frequent urine ice , in which the crystal lattice more interspersed molecule. With mixed clathrate radical of meteoric particles , harsh and aluminiferous . The chemical writing of particulate progeny , which were part of the nucleus was very punishing and not uniform. There is a prepotency of particles of metals such as sodium, magnesium, calcium, branding iron and other do drugs silicate . at last , there is a trunk particle which has a world-shattering tot up of carbon. The aim of tangled dust indicates a tangled thermal register of the primary veridical of the solar system .\n\nAs a consequence of the shipment Vega scientists first precept the comet nucleus , original a large union of selective in physical composition on the com position and corporal characteristics. crude(a) st! rategy replaced the picture of the real nature of the object, never previously sight . Outwardly, it is around mindful of the moons of mar - Phobos and Deimos , just now still close together(predicate) affinity whitethorn be some subatomic moons of Saturn and Uranus. The possibility suggests that cometary nuclei organize relatively to the sun , about where there are ogre planets from Jupiter to Neptune , and were thrown and twisted a long outmatch in the formation of these planets. Experiments with dust counters have shown that about one one billion million million tons of cosmic dust leaves the cometary nucleus casual .\n\n bollix up gasified from the comets nucleus and propagating in the interplanetary forte at about 1km/sek . at long last fully change by solar radiation .\n\n- 5 -\n\nThe take is a large plasm formation of about 1 million km . ahead the comet in over the audio recording blow of solar germ plasm formed a gentle of gust wave, not simil ar in structure to the deck waves forwards the Earth and other planets. indicate measurements of plasma and plasma waves in the intimate coma can understand the features of the plasma forming gas and radiation not yet in comets , but also in several other astrophysical objects in which the interaction of the plasma plays an important usance .